Here is a selection of references we use, such as textbooks, dictionaries and books or individual work written by well known economists in the past. We encourage you to use them when learning about an economic or political subject, since reading the original work will allow you to see the author’s in-depth thinking.



AKERLOF, George Arthur, The Market for “Lemons”: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism; The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 84, No. 3, pp. 488-500, 1970 (pdf, external link)

ALLAIS, Maurice, Le Comportement de l’homme rationnel devant le risque; Econometrica, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 503-546, 1953 (pdf, external link)

ARROW, Kenneth J., Social Choice and Individual Values; Wiley, New York, 1951

ARROW, Kenneth J. and DEBREU, Gérard, Existence of an Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy; Econometrica, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 265-290, 1954 (pdf, external link)

BAIN, Joe S., Industrial Organization; Wiley, New York, 1959

BATOR, Francis M., The Anatomy of Market Failures; The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 72, No. 3, pp. 351-379, 1958 (pdf, external link)

BAUMOL, William J., Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure; The American Economic Review, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 1-15, 1982

BAYES, Thomas, Essay Towards Solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances; The Royal Society, 1763 (pdf)

BECKER, Gary S., Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education; University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1964

BENTHAM, Jeremy, A Fragment on Government; London, 1776 (pdf)

BERNOULLI, Daniel, Exposition of a new theory on the measurement of risk; translated by Dr. Louise Sommer, Econometrica, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 23-36, 1954 (original paper by Bernoulli dates from 1738) (pdf)

CAGAN, Phillip D., The Monetary Dynamics of Hyperinflation; in Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1956

CAHUC, Pierre and ZYLBERBERG, André, Le marché du travail; De Boeck Universités, 2001

CHAMBERLIN, Edward H., The Theory of Monopolistic Competition; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1933

CLARK, John M., Studies in the Economics of Overhead Costs; The Economic Journal, Vol. 35, No. 138, pp. 245-251, 1923 (pdf)

COASE, Ronald H., The Nature of the Firm; Economica, Vol. 4, No. 16, pp. 386-405, 1937 (pdf, external link)

COASE, Ronald H., The Problem of Social Cost; Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 3, pp. 1-44, 1960 (pdf, external link)

COURNOT, Antoine A., Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth; 1838 (pdf)

DEBREU, Gérard, Theory of Value: An Axiomatic Analysis of Economic Equilibrium; Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1959

EDGEWORTH, Francis Ysidro,  Mathematical Psychics: An essay on the application of mathematics to the moral science; C. Kegan Paul and Co., London, 1881 (pdf)

EDGEWORTH, Francis Ysidro, Theory of International ValuesThe Economic Journal Vol. 4, No. 16, pp. 606-638, 1894 (pdf)

EDGEWORTH, Francis Ysidro, The Pure Theory of TaxationThe Economic Journal Vol. 7, No. 25, pp. 46-70, 1897 (pdf)

EDGEWORTH, Francis Ysidro, The Pure Theory of MonopolyThe Economic Journal Vol. 7, No. 26, pp. 226-238, 1897 (pdf)

ELLSBERG, Daniel, Risk, Ambiguity, and the Savage Axioms; The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol.75, No.4, pp. 643-669, 1961 (pdf, external link)

EZEQUIEL, Mordecai, The Cobweb Theorem; The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 255-280, 1938 (pdf, external link)

FISHER, Irving, Appreciation and Interest; Publications of the American Economic Association, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 331-442, 1896 (pdf)

FISHER, Irving, The Nature of Capital and Income; The Macmillan Company, London, 1906

FISHER, Irving, The Purchasing Power of Money; The Macmillan Company, New York, 1911 (pdf)

FISHER, Irving, A Statistical Relation between Unemployment and Price Changes; International Labour Review Vol. 13, No. 6, 1926

FLEMING, J. Marcus, Domestic Financial Policies under Fixed and under Floating Exchange Rates; Staff Papers-IMF, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 369-380, 1962

FRIEDMAN, James W., A Non-cooperative Equilibrium for Supergames; The Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 1-12, 1971

FRIEDMAN, Milton, A Theory of the Consumption Function; Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1957

FRIEDMAN, Milton and SAVAGE, Leonard J., Utility Analysis of Choices Involving Risk; Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 56, No. 4, pp. 279-304, 1968

FRIEDMAN, Milton and SCHWARTZ, Anna J., A monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960; Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1963

FRIEDMAN, Milton, The Role of Monetary Policy; The American Economic Review, Vol. 58, No. 1, 1968 (pdf, external link)

HARROD, Roy F., Towards a Dynamic Economics; Macmillan, London, 1948

HARSANYI, John C., Games with Incomplete Information Played by ‘Bayesian’ Players; Management Science, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 159-182, 1967

HAYEK, Friedrich A. von, Pure Theory of Capital; University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1941

HAYEK, Friedrich A. von, The Road to Serfdom; University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1944

HICKS, John R., The Theory of Wages; Macmillan, London, 1932

HICKS, John R., Mr. Keynes and the “Classics”: a Suggested Interpretation;  Econometrica, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 147-159, 1937

HOTELLING, Harold, Stability in Competition; The Economic Journal, Vol. 39, No. 153, pp. 41-57, 1929 (pdf, external link)

HUME, David, Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary; 1742

JEVONS, William Stanley, The Theory of Political Economy; Macmillan and Co., London, 1871

JUGLAR, Clément, Des crises commerciales et leur retour périodique en France, en Angleterre, et aux États-Unis; Guillaume et Cie., Paris, 1862 (pdf)

KAHNEMAN, Daniel and TVERSKY, Amos, Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk; Econometrica, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 263-291, 1979 (pdf, external link)

KALDOR, Nicholas, A Classificatory Note on the Determinateness of Equilibrium; The Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.122-136, 1934

KEYNES, John Maynard, The Economic Consequences of Peace; Harcourt, Brace, and Howe, Inc., New York, 1919

KEYNES, John Maynard, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money; Macmillan and Co., London, 1936

KLEIN, Lawrence R., A Textbook of Econometrics; Row, Peterson & Co., 1953

KNIGHT, Frank H., Risk, Uncertainty and Profit; Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1921 (pdf)

KOOPMANS, Tjalling C., Analysis of Production as an Efficient Combination of Activities; Cowles Commission for Research in Economics, monograph No. 13, Wiley, New York, 1951

KRUGMAN, Paul Robin, Increasing Returns, Monopolistic Competition and International Trade; Journal of International Economics, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 469-479, 1978 (pdf, external link)

LANCASTER, Kelvin and LIPSEY, Richard G., The General Theory of Second Best; The Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 11-32, 1956-1957

LANCASTER, Kelvin, A New Approach to Consumer Theory; Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 74, No. 2, pp. 132-157, 1966 (pdf, external link)

LAYARD, Richard and NICKELL, Stephen J., Unemployment in Britain; Economica, Vol. 53, No. 210 (S), pp. 121-169, 1986

LEIBENSTEIN, Harvey, Allocative efficiency vs “X-efficiency”; The American Economic Review, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 392-415, 1966 (pdf, external link)

LEONTIEF, Wassily, The Structure of the American Economy, 1919-1929: An Empirical Application of Equilibrium Analysis; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1941

LEVY, Daniel et al., The Magnitude of Menu Costs: Direct Evidence from Large U.S. Supermarket Chains; The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 112, No. 3, pp. 791-825, 1997 (pdf, external link)

LJUNGQVIST, Lars and SARGENT, Thomas J., Two Questions about European Unemployment; Econometrics, Vol. 76, No. 1, pp. 1-29, 2008

LUCAS, Robert E. Jr., Expectations and the Neutrality of Money; Journal of Economic Theory, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 103-124, 1972 (pdf, external link)

LUCAS, Robert E. Jr., Some International Evidence on Output-Inflation Tradeoffs; The American Economic Review, Vol. 63, No. 3, pp. 326-334, 1973 (pdf, external link)

LUCAS, Robert E. Jr., Econometric Policy Evaluation: A Critique; Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 19-46, 1976 (pdf, external link)

LUCAS, Robert E. Jr., Understanding Business Cycles; Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 7-29, 1977 (pdf, external link)

MALTHUS, Thomas Robert, An Essay on the Principles of Population; John Murray, London, 1798

MANKIW, Gregory, Small Menu Costs and Large Business Cycles: A Macroeconomic Model of Monopoly; The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 100, No. 2, pp. 529-538, 1985 (pdf, external link)

MARKOWITZ, Harry, Portfolio Selection: Efficient Diversification of Investments; The Journal of Finance, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 77-91, 1959

MARKOWITZ, Harry, The Utility of Wealth; Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 151-158, 1952 (pdf, external link)

MARSHALL, Alfred, Principles of Economics; Macmillan and Co., London, 1890

MARX, Karl and ENGELS, Friedrich, Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei; London, 1848

MARX, Karl, Das Kapital: Kritik der olitischen Oekonomie; Hamburg and Berlin, 1867, 1885, 1894

MENGER, Carl, Grundsätze der Volkswirtschaftslehre; Vienna, 1871

MILL, John Stuart, Principles of Political Economy with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy; Logmans, Green and Co., London, 1848

MISES, Ludwig H. E. von, Human Action: A Treatise on Economics; Yale University Press, New Haven, 1949 (pdf, external link)

MODIGLIANI, Franco and MILLER, Merton H., The Cost of Capital, Corporation Finance and the Theory of Investment; The American Economic Review, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 261-297, 1958 (pdf, external link)

MODIGLIANI, Franco, The Life Cycle Hypothesis of Savings, the Demand for Wealth and the Supply of Capital; Social Research, Vol. 33, pp. 160-217, 1966

MORTENSEN, Dale T., Job Search, the Duration of Unemployment, and the Phillips Curve; American Economic Review, Vol. 60, No. 5, pp. 847-862, 1970

MORTENSEN, Dale T. and PISSARIDES, Christopher A., Job Creation and Job Destruction in the Theory of Unemployment; Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 61, No. 3, pp. 397-415, 1994

MUNDELL, Robert, A Theory of Optimum Currency Areas; The American Economic Review, Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 657-665, 1961 (pdf, external link)

MUNDELL, Robert, Capital Mobility, and Stabilization Policy under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates; Revue Canadienne d’Economique et de Science Politique, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 475-485, 1963 (pdf, external link)

MUTH, John F., Optimal Properties of Exponentially Weighted Forecasts; Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 55, No. 290, pp. 299-306, 1960

MUTH, John F., Rational Expectations and the Theory of Price MovementsEconometrica, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 315-335, 1961 (pdf, external link)

NASH, John Forbes, Non-Cooperative Games; Dissertetion for PhD, Princeton University, 1950 (pdf, external link)

PARETO, Vilfredo, Cours d’économie politique; F.Rouge, Lausanne, 1896-97

PARETO, Vilfredo, Manuale di economia politica con una introduzione alla scienza sociale; Milan, 1906 (pdf, italian)

PHELPS, Edmund S., The Golden Rule of Accumulation: a Fable for Growthmen; The American Economic Review, Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 638-643, 1961 (pdf, external link)

PHELPS, Edmund S., Money-Wage Dynamics and Labor Market Equilibrium; Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 76, No. 4, pp. 678-711, 1967

PHELPS, Edmund S., The New Microeconomics in Inflation and Employment Theory; The American Economic Review, Vol. 59, No. 2, pp. 147-160, 1969

PHILLIPS, Alban William Housego, The Relation Between Unemployment and the Rate of Change of Money Wage Rates in the United Kingdom, 1861-1957; Economica, November, pp. 283-299, 1958 (pdf, external link)

PIGOU, Arthur Cecil, Wealth and Welfare; Macmillan and Co., London, 1912

PIGOU, Arthur Cecil, The Economics of Welfare; Macmillan and Co., London, 1920

PRATT, John W., Risk Aversion in the Small and in the Large; Econometrica, Vol. 32, No. 1/2, pp. 122-136, 1964 (pdf, external link)

RAMSEY, Frank P., Truth and Probability; The Foundations of Mathematics and other Logical Essays, 1926 (pdf, external link)

RAMSEY, Frank P., A Contribution to the Theory of Taxation; The Economic Journal, Vol. 37, No. 145, pp. 47-61, 1927 (pdf, external link)

RAMSEY, Frank P., A Mathematical Theory of Saving; The Economic Journal, Vol. 38, No. 152, pp. 543-559, 1928 (pdf, external link)

RICARDO, David, On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation; John Murray, London, 1817

ROTHSCHILD, Michael and STIGLITZ, Joseph E., Equilibrium in Competitive Insurance Markets; The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 90, No. 4, pp. 629-649, 1976

SALOP, Steven C., Monopolistic Competition with Outside Goods; Bell Journal of Economics, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 141-156, 1979 (pdf, external link)

SAMUELSON, Paul A., Consumption Theory in Terms of Revealed Preference; Economica, Vol. 15, No. 60, pp. 243-253, 1948

SAMUELSON, Paul A., Economics, 3 edn.; McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955

SAMUELSON, Paul A. and SOLOW, Robert M., Analytical Aspects of Anti-Inflation Policy; The American Economic Review, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 177-194, 1960

SARGENT, Thomas J. and WALLACE, Neil, Rational Expectations and the Theory of Economic Policy; Journal of Monetary Economics, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 169-183, 1976

SARGENT, Thomas J. and WALLACE, Neil, Some Unpleasant Monetarist Arithmetic; Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Fall, 1981 (pdf, external link)

SCHUMPETER, Joseph A., History of Economic Analysis; Allen & Unwin Ltd., United Kingdom, 1954 (pdf, external link)

SHAPIRO, Carl and STIGLITZ, Joseph E., Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device;  American Economic Review, Vol. 74, No. 3, pp. 433-444, 1984

SHARPE, William F., Capital Asset Prices: A Theory of Market Equilibrium under Conditions of Risk; The Journal of Finance, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 425-442, 1964 (pdf, external link)

SMITH, Adam, The Theory of Moral Sentiments; A. Millar, London, 1759

SMITH, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations; Methuen & Co., London, 1776

SOLOW, Robert M., A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth; The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 70, No. 1, pp. 65-94, 1956 (pdf, external link)

SOLOW, Robert M., Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function; Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 312-320, 1957 (pdf, external link)

SPENCE, A. Michael, Job Market Signaling; Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 355-374, 1973 (pdf, external link)

STIGLITZ, Joseph E. and WEISS, Andrew M., Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information; American Economic Review, Vol. 71, No. 3, pp. 393-410, 1981 (pdf, external link)

TOBIN, James, Stabilization Policy Ten Years After; Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 10th Anniversary Issue: 19-71, 1980 (pdf, external link)

VICKREY, William S., Counterspeculation, Auctions, and Competitive Sealed Tenders; Journal of Finance, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 8-37, 1961 (pdf, external link)

WALRAS, Marie-Ésprit Léon, Éléments D’Économie Politique Pure, ou Théorie de la Richesse Sociale; Corbaz, Lausanne, 1874

WICKSELL, J. G. Knut, Value, Capital and Rent; Stockholm, 1893 (pdf)

WICKSELL, J. G. Knut, Interest and Prices; Stockholm, 1898 (pdf)

WILLIAMSON, Oliver E., Economies as an Antitrust Defense: The Welfare Tradeoffs; American Economic Review, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 18-36, 1968

WILLIAMSON, Oliver E., Market and Hierarchies: Some Elementary Considerations; American Economic Review, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 316-325, 1973

WILLIAMSON, Oliver E., Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractual Relations; Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 233-261, 1979

WILLIAMSON, Oliver E., The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach; American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 87, No. 3, pp. 548-577, 1981



THE NEW PALGRAVE: A DICTIONARY OF ECONOMICS; edited by John Eatwell, Murray Milgate and Peter Newman, The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1987

THE NEW PALGRAVE DICTIONARY OF MONEY AND FINANCE; edited by Peter Newman, Murray Milgate and John Eatwell, The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1992